Consultation with an orthodontist should be carried out as early as possible. During the first year of an infant’s life, signs of congenital pathology, abnormalities of dental solid tissues and corresponding complications in tooth-maxillary system formation can be revealed. In order to ensure correct dental development and proper temporomandibular joint functions, a dentist selects special orthopaedic devices, e.g. vestibular plates, for a child.
Teeth fitting and occlusion correction can also be done in adult age. The treatment methods would somewhat differ from pediatric orthodontics. For the present, the use of bracket systems presents the most popular method.
The word "bracket" was adopted by Russian language from English. The main element of the system is the bracket itself, representing a construction bearing PC-created information on where a specific tooth should be situated in the ideal model. A set of brackets is composed of 20 pieces, of which 10 brackets are attached (using photopolymer material) to upper teeth, and another 10 brackets – to lower teeth.
The second element, an arc, is made of special titanium-nickel alloy, possessing the effect of shape memory: no matter how it is bent, it tends to reach its initial shape. The arc is given the ideal dentition shape.
The arcs can be different in diameter, section and tensile strength. The treatment starts with the weakest ones and concludes with the densest ones.
The last detail is ligature (a metal wire or a rubber ring, connecting the arc with the bracket). It is used to hold the arc in the bracket slot.
The brackets are made of stainless steel, titanium, monocrystal, composite, ceramics, special fiberglass and even gold. There are brackets made of artificial sapphire – they are transparent and almost invisible on teeth, they are more securely fastened, but they are more fragile.
Recently, self-ligating brackets have been gaining increasing higher popularity thanks to the absence of sliding clips and doors. The construction allows to engage the archwire selectively (arch introduction into one clip), allowing the orthodontist to control the treatment process. If needed, he traditional construction of the wings allows easy addition of extra components to close the gaps. The concept of “open slot” was designed to ensure an easier care and improved oral hygiene. Advantages of passive self-ligation are evident as early as at the stage of leveling out.
The knowledge of different analysis methods of models, x-ray shots and photos used for accurate and thorough orthodontic diagnosis are of crucial importance for treatment planning and treatment itself.
Terms of wearing brackets are set by an orthodontist in each case individually.
Orthodontic treatment using lingual brackets
Our clinic has recently commenced the use of a new and rapidly developing method of orthodontics - the "Incognito" lingual bracket system.
The system envisages tailor made arc and braces for each patient.
All parts are manufactured using the ultra-modern technology of CAD / CAM. A model of the finished product is scanned with a 3-D scanner and the design of braces is then re-constructed by a computer. The result is that the braces and the arc specific for each patient and the individual design is determined by the patient's pathology.
Braces are made of gold and are manufactured on a highly individual platform which fits perfectly with the relevant teeth. Often, the platform attracts the most plaque and hence the formation of cavities is minimised as much as possible. Patients are generally pleased with the location of lingual braces as they are barely visible and do not intrude on a daily or work life of those using them.
Generally, excellent results are achieved for patients who use this system. The additional advantage is that the patients only have to undergo very minimal mechanical treatment the end of the period. This generally involves the doctor making alterations to certain teeth.
As in the vestibular system, the patients should be aware of some side effects during the initial stages of the lingual system. There may be a slight defect in the diction and possibly unclear pronunciation. However, after a short time of adaptation, the patients generally begin to notice that, at the stage of levelling, some teeth alignment has already taken place.
In case of tooth crowding, the "Incognito leit" system is occasionally used. Tooth alignment generally takes from 4 to 8 months. The braces are bonded from tooth to tooth, or premolar to premolar.
In complicated cases, the lingual system may be complemented by additional treatments as is often the case when using the vestibular system.